中文 | English
(Chinese translation by Shou Chenyan from the University Scholars Programme, NUS)
跨性别： 跨性别者，是指那些性别身份与生理性别不相符合的人。有时他们被过于简单的描述为“被束缚在男人身体里的女人”（跨性别女人）或“被束缚在女人身体里的男人”（跨性别男人）。 这种自我性别认同和生理特征上的冲突经常导致强烈的焦虑或痛苦，被称之为性别不安症。
变性者： 变性者是跨性别下的一个次分类，指的是对自己的身体感到不满、焦虑，而因此可能通过手术改变性别的人。 然而，由于“变性者”这个词 长久以来带有歧视性并带有性暗示，更常用的说法是“跨性别者”。
顺性别： 顺性别者指不是跨性别的人。 这个名词指那些自我性别认同和生理性别一致的人（比如，出生时的生理性别是女性，也认为自己是女性）。 顺性别者比起“生理男人/生理女人”来说是一个更准确的说法，因为经过手术变性的跨性别者在生理上也是更接近于他们选择的性别的。 因为雌雄同体这种情况的存在，有些人出生时，他/她的基因和性器官显示的是 两种不同的性别，或者在他/她身上，两种不同性别的性器官都有。
性别酷儿： 性别酷儿指的是一类跨性别者，他们在性别认同上认为自己不单纯属于男人或女人。 有些性别酷儿认为自己两性特征兼有（既是男人也是女人），有些人视自己为无性别，也有些人认为自己属于男人和女人之外的另一种性别。 一些经历性别焦虑症的性别酷儿可能会选择手术变性。
流性人： 流性人指的是经历性别认知波动的人，有时这种波动会伴随着对 身体的不满和焦虑。 比如，一个有典型女性生理特征的人可能在一段时间内对自己的女性身体感到满意，也认同自己是女人，但在另一段时间突然 对自己的身体产生强烈的不满，强烈地认为自己是男人，并由此觉得对于 自己的性别来说，自己的身体是错误的。 在这种时候，他们的感受和跨性 别男人很相似。性别流动目前在医学领域研究很少，但一项 2012 年的研 究猜测，这种现象，从神经学的角度或许可以解释为“交替性的性别不协调”，意为异常程度的半脑切换会导致人出现类似于幻肢的对于不存在的 性征的认知，比如一个生理男性认为自己有乳房。
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Here are some definitions of terms:
Transgender: Transgender people have gender identities that differ from the sex they were assigned at birth. Gender identity is a person’s internal and social sense of being a man or a woman (or a boy or girl). The word is an adjective, not a noun; “transgenders” is grammatically incorrect, and the right term would be “transgender people” or “trans people”.
Transgender woman: A transgender woman is someone with a female gender identity who was assigned male at birth.
Transgender man: A transgender man is someone with a male gender identity who was assigned female at birth.
Transsexual: An older term that some trans people still use, particularly the subset of trans people who experience body dysphoria and pursue medical transition.
Non-binary: Non-binary people have gender identities that are neither male nor female. The term is relatively new, and was preceded by terms like genderqueer or genderfluid in older generations. Some use terms like demigirl or demiboy to indicate if they feel more male or female.
Often, non-binary people prefer a third pronoun other than he or she, they being the most common. Some identify as transgender, while others do not. Non-binary people sometimes experience body dysphoria and seek medical transition.
Non-binary identities are often subject to change as personal and social contexts evolve. Some people may adopt non-binary identities as the first step in figuring out their gender identity. Others who initially thought of themselves as trans men or women may come to realise that they are non-binary.
Cisgender: Someone who is not transgender. This includes gay, lesbian and bisexual people whose gender identities match their sex assigned at birth. (‘Cis’ is a Latin prefix that means ‘on the same side of’, while ‘trans’ means ‘across’ or ‘on the other side’.) This is more accurate than calling someone a ‘biological’ or ‘genetic’ man or woman. Transgender people who have undergone medical transition are biologically closer to the sex they have transitioned to. Due to intersex conditions, some people may also be born genetically one sex but anatomically another, or mixes of both.
Intersex: Intersex people are born with bodies that cannot be neatly classified as male or female. They have sexually atypical chromosomal, hormonal, anatomical or genetic features, such as someone with XXY chromosomes, or with both testes and a uterus, or a micropenis and an underdeveloped vagina. An estimated 1.7% of the population has intersex characteristics; those with more visible variations form about 0.5% of the population.
Intersex conditions may be obvious at birth, especially where genitals are affected, or only discovered later in puberty or adulthood. Some people go through life and may even have children without ever learning that they are intersex. Some intersex people consider themselves transgender and may also pursue transition in cases where their gender identities do not match their sex assigned at birth.